What are the stairs for the house or cottage
The staircase is the most complex three-dimensional element of a residential building, providing its vertical connections along various paths. Over the centuries of its existence inside the house, it has developed from a tight and steep spiral, hidden in the thickness of a stone wall, into a lightly corrugated ribbon freely flying in open space.
Marching stairs, we call such that either the whole consists of a single straight section, or of several straight sections with turns between them. The ladder can be located along the L-shaped wall, either in the U-shaped pier, or in a square closed on four sides. In this regard, modern staircases are no different from those mentioned in the very classic “Handbook” that you mentioned.
But the modern principles of the device ladder as the most important functional and decorative element of a residential house and a full-fledged object of engineering thought from the classical can be very different.
The choice of requirements and characteristics of the ladder node, as a rule, is determined by the general architectural and planning solution of a dwelling house. There were mansions in which the staircase was, as they say, the “nail” of the interior (but this case is quite rare). This should be an open staircase, randomly placed in double-light rooms.
It is clearly visible from different points of view and has a ceremonial, more precisely representative character. It is possible to mirror the duplication of staircases to achieve symmetry. The upper platform is sometimes turned into a balcony or into a part of the upper floor gallery. In general, to arrange such a ladder, you just have to have a huge house.
Open wall stairs - an option when at least one march rises along the wall. Perhaps the device unequal marches, especially with more than two of them.
Non-standard solutions are also possible, for example, when the first march remains open and gives it a presentable appearance (by increasing the width or careful finishing of all parts, etc.), and then the stairs become more modest or, if you prefer, more hidden and purely functional. . By carefully finishing the parts, we mean, for example, the use of carved balusters that can be made on CNC machines.
The basis of the flight of stairs often serves as a solid metal beam - kosour. Bearing beams can be one - at the device of narrow ladders or two - at the device wider. A narrow ladder kosour can be made not only from a straight single beam, but also assembled from separate elements welded together. This staircase looks quite unusual and very elegant. In addition, the use of the compacted welded kosour makes it possible to manufacture a ladder of unusual geometry.
No less impressive is another type of ladder - cantilever. One end of the step of such stairs is embedded in the wall, and the other as if hanging in the air. The wall in which the steps are fixed must be capital. The steps of such ladders are made of thicker material (not less than 60 mm). Accordingly, such stairs are the most expensive.
They consist of separate elements that are connected to each other by successively inserting one element into another. In appearance, such a ladder resembles the ladders described above on a complex welded slat. The difference is that the elements of the staircase do not weld with each other, but simply hold one another at the expense of their very design. This design has one significant advantage - each element of it can be rotated relative to another. As a result, you can get a ladder that does not just resemble a spiral, but coiled in a spiral, or resembles a snake, repeating the geometry of a curved wall, etc. Such a ladder costs almost one and a half times more expensive than a ladder on the central kosour, although its essence is the same.
We usually manufacture such stairs in the case of sending to another city, where it is too expensive to send our installers. In principle, assembling such a ladder in place resembles a children's designer - insert elements one into another, and then fasten the lower one to the floor, and the upper one to the floor. And even the handrail is used here a special - bending (by the way, it is also not very cheap). The undoubted advantage of this staircase is that it allows you to correct some errors of measurement and calculation, as each element rotates. With its help, you can not fix only a mistake in the height of the stairs.
It is worth warning customers of euphoria - we will create for ourselves such a geometry of a ladder that no one else has. And such thoughts often appear when customers see enough Italian or German advertising brochures. They come across photos of these stairs of such a form that they simply take admiration, and there are no intermediate supports under them. In fact, everything is not so. Such photos are made specifically for advertising, you cannot use the stairs in this form without risking your life.