Ladders | Stairs in the interior
The ladder should be selected at the design stage of the house, so that the layout and openings in the floor slabs correspond to its type.
At present, it is possible to purchase a ready-made staircase or its individual elements through a retail chain.
Depending on the size of the building, the layout of individual rooms and on their destination, the staircases can be single or double marsh. Marsh is called a continuous series of steps. When there are more than ten steps, it is inconvenient to climb stairs, so the march is divided into two parts by an intermediate platform. The choice of stairs is also determined by the location of the opening in the ceiling.
Ladders can be divided into straight and turning. Stairs with straight marches are the simplest. They are easy to manufacture, durable and easy to use. Stairs with more than two marches are called multi-march.
The advantage of rotary stairs over straight lines is that with the same height of the steps they occupy a smaller area in the room, but they are not safe for the elderly and children. In addition, it is inconvenient for them to carry furniture and other bulky items.
To save space, intermediate platforms are sometimes replaced with lead-in steps, the inner edge of which is already outside.
In the manufacture of curved staircases, the width of the tread at the narrow end should not be less than 10 cm. It should be noted that on the staircase with steps in the foot does not feel sufficient support, therefore, they are used less frequently.
Economical and at the same time emphatically monumental curved staircases.
Turning stairs are usually installed along two walls. Often under them equip a storage room.
Swivel stairs are divided into quarter-turn, half-turn and circular (screw).
Is the angle of a quarter-turn staircase 90? (they are usually installed along two walls), half-turn - 180o, and circular - 360 ?.
Circular staircases are, as a rule, spiral, however, in fairly high rooms, circular staircases with straight marches are used, but in this case it is necessary to install two additional staircases.
Ladders consisting of only one end of the steps are called screw. They are most often made of metal or wood. Although spiral staircases almost do not take up space, they are extremely inconvenient in operation and are used less often than straight lines. Often spiral staircases play the role of auxiliary (to help the main staircase).
With a small opening in the interfloor overlap, spiral staircases with a central counter, the production of which many companies have already mastered, are most practical. They can be written out in the catalog or purchased in the trade network.
Spiral staircases with a central rack are produced in the form of a set of parts, which includes a central rod, an installed support flange and 12 steps attached to the rod. The outer edges of the steps support the railing posts that the spiral handrail connects. The staircase is completed by a platform and its fencing, the central rod is a decorative top.
Such ladders are convenient and easy to assemble, have an aesthetic appearance, are safe to use.
MATERIALS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF STAIRS
Ladders for residential premises inside the building with low-rise construction are made of wood or metal. The wood is easy to process at home, which, if used properly, paints gives an additional decorative effect. Wooden stairs are most often made of coniferous trees, but the most beautiful in structure, strong and durable - stairs from oak boards. However, oak wood is expensive and difficult to process (especially by hand).
MAJOR RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LADDER CONSTRUCTION
A staircase can be not only beautiful, expedient and convenient, but also traumatic, so when installing it you must comply with certain requirements.
In case of fire or natural disasters, additional side ladders or folding ladders should be provided.
The width of the staircase for the main stairs can not be less than 0.8 m.
All staircases with more than three steps (except for side ladders) should be equipped with strong and reliable handrails at least 90 cm high, and windows adjacent to the stairs should be fenced.
The dimensions of the steps should ensure safe movement of the stairs. For residential premises, their height (riser) is not allowed to be more than 20 cm, width (tread) is less than 25 cm, and the width of the landing steps in the aisle zone is less than 20 cm.
The staircase must have an easy access, and if it is located directly behind the door, it must be equipped with a platform with a width not less than the width of the door.
The permissible load on the ladder is not less than 180-220 kg, on the railing not less than 100 kg.