Ladder, the necessary mechanism in the house
For some reason, the overwhelming majority of informational materials about the stairs tell not so much about the functionality of the products, but about their original design performance. One gets the impression that the “semantic load” of the element, like a ladder, does not deserve attention at all.
But actually it is not. The staircase is, first of all, a structure that performs a very specific and definite function. Therefore, in this article we will look at various types of ladders from the point of view of their functional performance.
All the variety of existing stairs in the world can be divided into two groups: interfloor stairs and special purpose stairs. General purpose interfloor stairs are used most often, moreover, when we say “staircase”, we mean the construction connecting the floors. The owner has to use an interfloor staircase more than once a day, so the main criterion for evaluating their design should be ease of use. Ease of use is made up of a combination of several categories: the angle of ascent / descent, the width of the walkway along the stairs, the presence of turning sections, the presence of free space above the head of a rising person, the safe enclosure of the stairs and stairways.
Of course, ease of use, first of all, depends on the angle of elevation of the stairs. The most convenient angles of ascent / descent are in the range from 30 degrees to 40 degrees. The steepness of the ascent is directly related to the ratio of two values - the step height (risers) and the step width (steps). The steeper the staircase, the less room it needs for installation in the house. At the same time, the more convenient the stairs are (the position), the more space must be provided for it. Accordingly, any owner has to choose between convenience, safety and precious square meters.
However, making a choice in favor of square meters, it should be remembered that going beyond certain parameters of convenience (30-40 degrees), you already get options for special stairs. If the angle is less than 20 degrees, the ladder goes into the category of ramps, if more than 45 degrees - into the category of ramps (folding).
It is important to take into account the fact that the most difficult action with a steepness of more than 40 degrees is the descent from the stairs.
At angles greater than 45 degrees, the descent can only be done backwards. Of course, this staircase can not be considered convenient for continuous daily use. The standard for the stairs in the house (apartment) where one family lives - 100 cm or more. The width of the 80 cm staircase can have, provided that its configuration is simple, it is built along one wall and allows you to lift any dimensional objects. Less than 80 cm may be auxiliary stairs, which are not the main ones, for example, stairs to the basement or to the attic.
In order for the staircase to become an architectural dominant, it allowed to climb with maximum comfort - you should make it at least 120 cm and, with the right choice of design solution, it will become a real decoration of the house.
All staircases, except the straight ones, have turning sections, and the spiral ones consist only of them. The implementation of the rotation is not a big problem, but it must be executed correctly. The easiest way to turn is through the platform, which is not always possible in cramped conditions, since the platform is one rise (step) up, and in rooms of limited sizes the climb should be carried out as often as possible so that the angle of ascent is most convenient.
Turning through zabezhnye (triangular) steps is more common in small rooms and private homes. In this case, the optimal number of them are 3 angular steps per turn of 90 degrees. In the plan, they should create a square or rectangle. The number of step-over steps is more than 3 possible, but it must be borne in mind that the walking zone is reduced, since narrow sections of the stop-steps may not be involved.
When calculating the stairs located between the floors, it is very important to consider that the opening in the ceiling above the stairs must correspond to a safe passage through the entire ascent. The distance between the step and the ceiling should not be less than 200 cm. Given that a person 180 cm in height easily passes along the aisle 185 cm high, he will necessarily instinctively tilt his head and experience discomfort from it.
Fencing stairs and railings (balusters, poles and handrails) is a necessary component of overall security. The recommended height of the fence - 90 cm, with a ladder height of more than 6 m - 110 cm.
The distance between the balusters should be at least 15 cm in the centers. The thickness of the balusters does not play a decisive role, but the rigidity of the whole structure of the fence should be very high. This can be achieved by properly tightening the railings with poles and securing the poles securely to the base.
On all turns, poles must be installed, and if the length of the fence in a straight line exceeds 3 meters, additional supporting poles must also be standing.